Jennifer is a 2-year-old female who presents with her mother. Mom is concerned because Jennifer has been “running a temperature” for the last 3 days. Mom says that Jennifer is usually healthy and has no significant medical history. She was in her usual state of good health until 3 days ago when she started to get fussy, would not eat her breakfast, and would not sit still for her favorite television cartoon. Since then she has had a fever off and on, anywhere between 101oF and today’s high of 103.2oF. Mom has been giving her ibuprofen, but when the fever went up to 103.2oF today, she felt that she should come in for evaluation. A physical examination reveals a height and weight appropriate 2-year-old female who appears acutely unwell. Her skin is hot and dry. The tympanic membranes are slightly reddened on the periphery, but otherwise normal in appearance. The throat is erythematous with 4+ tonsils and diffuse exudates. Anterior cervical nodes are readily palpable and clearly tender to touch on the left side. The child indicates that her throat hurts “a lot” and it is painful to swallow. Vital signs reveal a temperature of 102.8oF, a pulse of 128 beats per minute, and a respiratory rate of 24 beats per minute. Adaptive Immunity Essay Paper
Jack is a 27-year-old male who presents with redness and irritation of his hands. He reports that he has never had a problem like this before, but about 2 weeks ago he noticed that both his hands seemed to be really red and flaky. He denies any discomfort, stating that sometimes they feel “a little bit hot,” but otherwise they feel fine. He does not understand why they are so red. His wife told him that he might have an allergy and he should get some steroid cream. Jack has no known allergies and no significant medical history except for recurrent ear infections as a child. He denies any traumatic injury or known exposure to irritants. He is a maintenance engineer in a newspaper building and admits that he often works with abrasive solvents and chemicals. Normally he wears protective gloves, but lately they seem to be in short supply so sometimes he does not use them. He has exposed his hands to some of these cleaning fluids, but says that it never hurt and he always washed his hands when he was finished.
Martha is a 65-year-old woman who recently retired from her job as an administrative assistant at a local hospital. Her medical history is significant for hypertension, which has been controlled for years with hydrochlorothiazide. She reports that lately she is having a lot of trouble sleeping, she occasionally feels like she has a “racing heartbeat,” and she is losing her appetite. She emphasizes that she is not hungry like she used to be. The only significant change that has occurred lately in her life is that her 87-year-old mother moved into her home a few years ago. Mom had always been healthy, but she fell down a flight of stairs and broke her hip. Her recovery was a difficult one, as she has lost a lot of mobility and independence and needs to rely on her daughter for assistance with activities of daily living. Martha says it is not the retirement she dreamed about, but she is an only child and is happy to care for her mother. Mom wakes up early in the morning, likes to bathe every day, and has always eaten 5 small meals daily. Martha has to put a lot of time into caring for her mother, so it is almost a “blessing” that Martha is sleeping and eating less. She is worried about her own health though and wants to know why, at her age, she suddenly needs less sleep. Adaptive Immunity Essay Paper
Review the three scenarios, as well as Chapter 6 in the Huether and McCance text.
Identify the pathophysiology of the disorders presented in each of the three scenarios, including their associated alterations. Consider the adaptive responses to the alterations.
Review the examples of “Mind Maps—Dementia, Endocarditis, and Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)” media in this week’s Learning Resources. Then select one of the disorders you identified from the scenarios. Use the examples in the media as a guide to construct a mind map for the disorder you selected. Consider the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.
Review the Application Assignment Rubric found under Course Information
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Write a 2- to 3-page paper excluding the title page, reference page and Mind Map that addresses the following:
For each of the three scenarios explain the pathophysiology, associated alterations and the patients’ adaptive responses to the alterations caused by the disease processes. You are required to discuss all three scenarios within the paper component of this assignment.
Construct one mind map on a selected disorder presented in one of the scenarios. Your Mind Map must include the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the disorder, as well as any adaptive responses to alterations.
The adaptive immunity involves cell-medicated and antibody responses (immune responses), which are executed by B cells and T cells. B cells are actively involved in creating antibodies that bind to nearly any foreign antigen with the blood plasma and lymph (Huether & McCance, 2012). The binding of antibody leads to inactivation of pathogens and toxins by hindering the capacity to bind on the receptors of the host’s cells. Generally, adaptive immunity works by destroying the infectious pathogens and offers lasting protection against future exposures to similar infectious pathogens (Huether & McCance, 2012). This paper will discuss the pathophysiology of various disorders in the scenarios and construct a mind map for one of the disorders.
The patient Jennifer manifests fever, slightly reddened tympanic membranes, diffuse exudate, throat erythematous, palpable and tender anterior cervical nodes, and painful throat when swallowing. These symptoms suggest tonsillitis.
The pathophysiology of tonsillitis occurs when the mucous membrane of the tonsils is invaded by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or allergies resulting in a local inflammatory response. After the inflammation of the tonsils, they swell and become red (Bakar et al, 2018). This causes to sore throat and symptoms such as painful swallowing. In addition, the inflammation of the tonsils leads to swelling of the throat tissues and tonsils and this obstructs gaseous exchange within the respiratory system (Bakar et al, 2018). The adaptive response during tonsillitis infection activates the various B cells and T cells lymphocytes, in order to eradicate the alteration and enable the body to achieve the normal hemostasis (Huether & McCance, 2012).
The patient’s symptoms included irritation and redness of the hands. According to the patient, he exposed his hand to cleaning solutions because he did not wear gloves while handling some chemicals and abrasive solvents. As per the symptoms and history, the diagnosis of the patient is of irritant contact dermatitis.
The pathophysiology of irritant contact dermatitis involves an inflammation that is not immunologically mediated; the inflammation occurs after the skin cells release pro-inflammatory cytokines are released (Mowad et al, 2016). The cytokines are released in response to external stimuli like chemicals, solvents, and detergents. This leads to pathophysiological alterations on the skin such as cytokine release and changes on the epidermal cells. For this patient, the pathophysiological alterations on the skin are manifested by the irritation and redness of the hands (Mowad et al, 2016). The adaptive responses to the changes on the skin include the skin adapting to the changed local expression of various inflammatory mediators and cytokines due to the irritation of the skin from the irritants such as chemicals. In addition, the adaptive response leads to thickening of the skin layer, loss of elasticity, glossy appearance and mildly scaled skin (Huether & McCance, 2012). Adaptive Immunity Essay Paper
The patient clinical symptoms suggest stress disorder. Pathophysiology of stress disorder involves a stress response by the body. Stress response refers to the body adaptations to correct the condition of allostatic imbalance caused by the stress which involves various endocrine and neural changes (Yaribeygi et al, 2017). During these changes, norepinephrine, serotonin, and epinephrine are secreted from the sympathetic nervous system. Secretion of these chemicals causes vasoconstriction which elevates the blood pressure as well as the heart rate. It also elevates the level of available oxygen and nutrients for the muscles in order to ensure adequate response to stress (Yaribeygi et al, 2017). Yaribeygi et al (2017) further explain that during stress hormones are known as glucocorticoids are secreted which also activate a stress response. The stress response is exhibited by clinical symptoms such as sadness, loss of appetite, lack of sleep, and increased pulse rate. Such adaptive responses assist in preparing the body to combat the stress through activation of the adaptive immune response to remedy imbalance caused by the stress disorder (Huether & McCance, 2012).
Bakar M, McKimm J, Haque S, Azim M & Haque M. (2018). Chronic tonsillitis and biofilms: a brief overview of treatment modalities. J Inflamm Res. 1(11), 329–337.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2012). Understanding pathophysiology (Laureate custom ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Mowad C, Anderson B, Scheinman P & Brod B. (2016). Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 74(6), 1029–1040.
Yaribeygi H, Panahi Y, Sahraei H, Johnston T & Sahebkar A. (2017). The impact of stress on body function: A review. EXCLI J. 1(16), 1057–1072. Adaptive Immunity Essay Paper