Two concerns regarding global climate change in the United States. Include information about why this concern is important to the US and if left unchecked what the result will be. Describe what the US is doing to combat these problems, if anything. (climate change r/t heat and water)
2. Two concerns regarding global climate change in another developed country use Ireland. Include information about why this concern is important to them and, if left unchecked what the result well be. Describe interventions about what this country is doing to combat these problems, if any. Also two concerns regarding global climate change in Haiti regarding the earthquakes, Include information about why this concern is important to them and if left unchecked what the result will be.
Describe interventions about what the US is doing to combat these problems, if any.
3. Describe 2-3 health promotion strategies public health nurses might implement to help mitigate concerns of global climate change?
Global Climate Change and Health
Climate change impacts environmental and social determinants of health such as clean air, adequate food, safe drinking water, and secure shelter. Climate is among the various causes of the emergence of numerous diseases and also exacerbating existing health threats. The transmission of diseases caused by climate change occurs through water, food vectors, and aerosols. Climate change situations consist of changes in the distribution and spread of infectious diseases where extreme climate changes cause disease outbreaks (Paz, 2015). The purpose of this essay is to discuss the health issues associated with global climate changes as well as the health protection and health promotion strategies that can be useful in managing and preventing diseases caused by climate change. Global Climate Change and Health Essay
Concerns of Global Climate Change in the US
Heat-related illnesses are a major concern associated with global climate change in the United States. According to Caminade et al (2019), the temperature in the US continues to rise and the risks to health are most significant when increased temperatures mix with other weather conditions, leading to Excessive Heat Event. Excessive Heat Events take place when the temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and surface atmospheric pressure produce conditions that lead to heat-related deaths. For example, in 2006 there was a massive heatwave that leads to injuries and deaths of so many people. The infants, people with comorbid conditions, and the elderly are the populations most susceptible to heat-related deaths (Agarwal et al., 2018).
Heat-related illnesses include heat exhaustion, heatstroke, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and allergies. Heat exhaustion is typified by extreme sweating, fast heartbeat, low blood pressure, dizziness and muscle cramps due to overheating. Heatstroke is typified by progressive heat exhaustion and if untreated it can adversely affect kidneys, brain, muscles, and the heart as well. Evidence also indicates that extreme heat is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and associated conditions such as dysrhythmia and stroke (Agarwal et al., 2018). In the US, cardiovascular disease and stroke are among the leading causes of death. In addition, long exposure to high temperatures can eventually cause major kidney problems. Finally, major allergens are normally spread during warm weather and thus aggravated allergies occur in seasons when there is an increased temperature (Agarwal et al., 2018).
Increased exposure to vectors that transmit diseases like Zika is also a major concern in the US. Climate change significantly contributes to the spread of Zika virus by creating conditions that favor the transmission of the virus by the mosquito (Asad & Carpenter, 2018). For instance, warm temperatures and heavy rainfall encourage the thriving of mosquitoes that act as vectors of Zika virus. The heavy rainfall that sometimes occurs in North America is attributable to the spread of the Zika virus since the stagnant water acts as a breeding ground for the mosquitoes. In contrast, the heat assists in the incubation of the zika virus and increases the likelihood of individuals being exposed to mosquito bites because of skin exposure (Asad & Carpenter, 2018). Climate changes significantly impact the survival rate of mosquitoes depending on seasonal changes. Baylis (2017) explains that climate changes that are currently occurring and in particular rainfall seasons and increased temperatures have played a major role in the existence of zika virus in the US and other regions such as southern Europe and parts of Australia. There is a significant risk allied to the Zika virus emerging within the U.S., which is located within North America. Between 2015-2016, more than a million people were infected with Zika virus in South America (Asad & Carpenter, 2018).
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The US has implemented various policies such as establishing carbon taxes on fossil fuels, investing in biomass, biofuels, and removing subsidies for nuclear power and fossil fuels and preventing actions that contribute to increased carbon prices (Popp et al., 2014).
Concerns of Global Climate Change in Ireland
Temperature changes and food securities are the major concerns of climate change within Ireland. Ireland has been known for cold weather but due to prolonged climate changes, from 1990 the country has experienced the warmest years on the record. Climate change in Ireland is likely to lead to increased torrential rain downpours, particularly during winter and also heatwaves and increased dry spells. Increased temperatures and heatwaves are likely to cause increased heat-related illnesses and deaths (Patz, 2018). Global Climate Change and Health Essay
Regarding food security, climate change is likely to affect the agricultural industry, causing failed harvests. Climate change can impact the supply of drinking water and result in water shortages. Both drought and increased rainfall can lead to significant food security issues. If the weather keeps changing, corps and farming in Ireland are likely to fail and the country could experience food shortages (Patz, 2018).
Climate change in Ireland threatens health and wellbeing and at the same time leads to significant anxiety and stress for many people. This indicates that climate change also adversely impacts the mental wellbeing (Patz, 2018).
Ireland has taken various measures regarding climate change. Ireland is a part of climate agreements with the EU and Paris Climate Agreement and the country has set various targets to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas emissions that are attributable to global warming.
Global Climate Change Concerns in Haiti
Global climate change concerns in Haiti include food security issues and injuries and deaths that result from catastrophes such as earthquakes and hurricanes. Haiti experiences tropical storms that cause significant destruction to the infrastructure and crops. For example, hurricanes within Haiti in 2008 led to the destruction of over 60% of crops and over 1,000 people died. Hurricanes with Haiti have led to the displacement of people, damage to the livestock and crops, increased mortality rate, and significant damage to the infrastructure (Ghazali et al., 2018).
Similarly, earthquakes in Haiti have led to the destruction of the infrastructure in the country and caused death to so many people in the country. For example, the 2010 earthquake caused the death of over 22, 000 individuals and caused massive destruction to the country’s infrastructure leaving the majority of people in Haiti in great need assistance.
Due to the earthquake, Haiti continues to encounter numerous crises. Deteriorating malnutrition due to food insecurity, a water-borne disease, as well as increased susceptibility to natural disasters continues to affect the health of people in Haiti (Ghazali et al., 2018).
The government of Haiti and international donors such as the US are taking various measures to address flooding and other problems in the country. The Department of Civil Protection and MARNDR in Haiti normally administer early warning systems to warn people about disasters. Similarly, the US funds programs aimed to build climate resilience in agricultural activities within Haiti through collaboration with local agencies and organizations. In addition, international bodies such as UNICEF work with the government and other partners to support children in Haiti.
Health Promotion Strategies for Public Health Nurses
Nurses have a major role when it comes to the prevention of diseases and calamities resulting from climate changes. For example, public health nurses can conduct community and patient education and educate people about how to protect themselves from diseases resulting from mosquitoes such as zika virus (Wilson & Nguyen, 2017). The health education can include educating people regarding the significance of eliminating stagnant water and using insect repellant (Wilson & Nguyen, 2017).
Nurses can also educate community members regarding how to protect themselves from heat-related illnesses such as heat stroke and heat exhaustion. This can include educating people to always hydrate themselves during hot seasons.
Public health nurses work in collaboration with international agencies such as UNICEF to educate the community members about proper nutrition and how to prevent some diseases. This is because they are patient advocates and play a major role in influencing behavior change among community members (Wilson & Nguyen, 2017). Global Climate Change and Health Essay
The global climate change concerns in the US include heat-related illnesses and transmission of illnesses such as zika virus that is caused by weather changes. On the other hand, temperature changes and food securities are the major concerns of climate change within Ireland. In Haiti, climate change has led to devastating earthquakes, flooding, and hurricanes that lead to a high number of deaths and injuries to people in Haiti and significant damage to the country’s infrastructure. The public health nurse has the role of educating the community members about the health concerns, appropriate preventative measures and acting as a patient advocate.
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Global Climate Change and Health Essay