Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response Essay

Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response Essay

Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3)
Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7)
Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12)
Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33)
Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42)
Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45)

American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767

American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults.  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response Essay

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2021). CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21.

This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from

This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from

This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from

This website details key aspects of drug registration.

Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements: Development, interpretation, and application (2nd ed.). American Nurses Association.

This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice.

Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from

This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors.

Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17


This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing.

Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist‐led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446

The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist‐led educational intervention on  Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response Essay

 Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics are two dynamic terms that address pharmacotherapeutic approaches in a patient’s body. Pharmacokinetics is termed as the body’s reaction to the drugs while pharmacodynamics is the action of the drugs to the body as you have stated. Drug medication is very crucial, as it requires the practitioner to thoroughly evaluate and assess the patient’s condition before administering the possible medication (Weerink et al., 2017). The thorough assessment and evaluation of the patient should help to avoid any adverse effects of the possible medication in the body. Patient assessment should also include a patient’s medical history to help determine whether that patient has had any existing problems in the past that might influence the effectiveness of the possible medication.

Patients should also consider seeking healthcare services immediately they encounter a health problem. For instance, in your case encounter of the 32-year old male patient, he failed to immediately seek medical care until when swelling and pain started. The patient had experienced a scratch on his leg yet he had cellulitis as a pre-existing condition as you have stated. Considering all the possible medications would therefore be essential to ensure that the best is recommended based on his condition of cellulitis. From the pain and high temperatures that the patient was experiencing, anti-fever and anti-biotic recommendation was one of the possible and immediate recommendation in the ER. The use of paracetamol was however questionable due to the patient’s history of having experienced chronic liver disease in the past due to excessive alcohol consumption. In such cases, I agree with you that intake of painkillers such as paracetamol should be highly monitored to avoid any adverse effects on the patient. Pain killers such as paracetamol should therefore be used in limited amounts together with medications such as IV antibiotics and NSAIDS to avoid any adverse effects as you have stated (Raffa et al., 2018). I am glad to have read your post and have gained a lot concerning Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.


Raffa, R. B., Pawasauskas, J., Pergolizzi, J. V., Lu, L., Chen, Y., Wu, S., … & Devarakonda, K.

(2018). Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) when co-

administered with intravenous morphine in healthy adult subjects. Clinical Drug

            Investigation38(3), 259-268.

Weerink, M. A., Struys, M. M., Hannivoort, L. N., Barends, C. R., Absalom, A. R., & Colin, P.

(2017). Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine. Clinical

            pharmacokinetics56(8), 893-913.

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics discussion response Essay


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