Investigate the following disease processes: HEPATITIS C
Analyze and describe the pathophysiology of the disease process and discuss the evidence-based pharmacological treatments in your state and how they affect management of the disease in your community. (3/4 – 1 page)
Discuss the clinical guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and patient education for the disease process. (3/4 – 1 page)
Analyze how the disease process affects patients, families, and populations in communities. (3/4 – 1 page)
Discuss briefly three strategies you could use to implement best practices for managing the disease in your current healthcare organization. (3/4 – 1 page)
Your paper should have a maximum of 4 pages and a minimum of 3, excluding the title and reference pages. You must cite and reference a minimum of three to four scholarly sources and reference national guidelines. Signature Assignment Hepatitis C Essay
Signature Assignment: Hepatitis C
Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Treatments
Hepatitis C virus is the cause of hepatitis C infection and occurs when the hepatitis C virus enters the bloodstream of an individual. The immune response is the first line of defense but hepatitis virus uses various mechanisms to evade the immune response. Persistent infections with hepatitis C occur because of weak CD4+and CD8+ T-cell responses and thus weak immune response after acute infection; as a result, the immune responses do not control the replication of the hepatitis C virus. After persistent infections, chronic hepatitis C occurs. Liver lesions occur due to non-specific locally-driven immune responses. Local inflammation occurs and fibrogenesis is triggered. This can lead to the scarring in the liver and eventually lead to liver failure, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (Zuckerman et al., 2018).
The approved pharmacological treatments for hepatitis C include antiviral drugs that aim to clear the hepatitis C virus from the body. Some of the antiviral medications include:
• lbasvir and grazoprevir: This is a pill taken once daily and it targets hepatitis C virus type 1 and 4.
• Mavyret: The patient takes three pills daily. This medication targets all types of hepatitis C virus.
• Harvoni: The patient takes one pill daily. The medication is FDA approved to treat hepatitis C virus type 1, 4, 5 and 6 (Zuckerman et al., 2018).
BUY A PLAGIARISM-FREE PAPER HERE
These medications have significantly improved the management of hepatitis C in my community. This is because the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in the community has significantly reduced. In addition, the majority of patients who start on antiviral medications and complete the dose have no detectable virus at the end of treatment.
Clinical Guidelines for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Patient Education
According to the clinical guidelines, any person who is a high risk of hepatitis C virus exposure ought to undergo screening for hepatitis C infection. Individuals who should be screening include; those who have ever injected drugs; children born to mothers with hepatitis C virus; individuals with HIV infection; if the sexual partner has hepatitis C; individuals with tattoos; those who underwent organ transplant or blood transfusions before 1992; people treated with clotting factors before 1987; people with abnormal findings for liver function tests; and healthcare workers exposes to blood or needle sticks (CDC, 2012).
If the blood test indicates that an individual has hepatitis C, the person should undergo further blood tests to examine the viral load in the blood and to identify the genotype of the virus. in addition, tests such as Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and liver biopsy can be used to examine liver damage (CDC, 2012).
Patient education should include advising the patient to reduce or completely abstain from alcohol because alcohol consumption has been shown to hasten the progression of liver fibrosis as well as cirrhosis. The patient should also be advised to get vaccinated against hepatitis B and A. In addition, it is critical to educate patients and their families on how to prevent transmission of hepatitis C virus by avoiding things such as sharing needles and personal items such as toothbrushes. Patients with hepatitis C should be advised to have an ultrasound performed every 6 months to examine for cancer symptoms (Wilkins et al., 2015).
Impact of Hepatitis C on Patients, Families, and Populations
The symptoms associated with hepatitis C can be debilitating and stressing to the patient. For example, fatigue can be very overwhelming and lead to reduced quality of life because the patient is unable to perform some duties and activities like before (Wilkins et al., 2015). Therefore, the patient’s functionality including the family life and occupation may be significantly affected.
Hepatitis C also has numerous social impacts. Patients might lack the energy to carry out the usual social activities and become wary of how other individuals may view their health status. This can result in isolation and aggravate depression and other mental health problems. In addition, the family and friends may avoid the person with hepatitis for the fear of becoming infected (Pozzetto et al., 2014). Moreover, chronic fatigue along with other symptoms of hepatitis C normally makes it difficult for individuals with hepatitis C to work normally and also the cost of treatment is relatively high (Wilkins et al., 2015). This may not only affect the productivity of the family, but also the income and status of the family. Signature Assignment Hepatitis C Essay
Strategies to Implement Best Practices for Managing Hepatitis C
Screening and diagnosis: The organization should implement policies that support screening of all patients with known risk behaviors and exposures to hepatitis C virus. Patients visiting the organization for other medical needs and with the known risk factors for hepatitis virus should be screened (Hagan & Raymond, 2014).
Treatment monitoring: The healthcare organizations should implement a policy that obligates healthcare providers to work closely with patients with hepatitis virus to ensure continued access to treatment and suitable follow-up. In addition, the patients should be linked to additional support such as linkage with a social worker and mental health practitioners in order to overcome obstacles to treatment adherence and completion. Telehealth can be implemented to monitor patients during their treatment (Hagan & Raymond, 2014).
Patient education: All patients need to be educated on the clinical implications for hepatitis virus, the risk for another infection and the need for extra liver care, depending on the status of fibrosis. Patients need to be educated about the need for avoiding alcohol because alcohol accelerates liver fibrosis. Finally, patients who manifest advanced fibrosis need to go further assessment such as testing for hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, and screening for esophageal varices (Hagan & Raymond, 2014).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Division of Viral Hepatitis. Hepatitis C FAQs for health professionals. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm.
Hagan L & Raymond S. (2014). Best strategies for global HCV eradication. Liver Int, 33(0 1), 68–79.
Pozzetto B, Memmi M, Garraud O, Roblin X & Philippe B. (2014). Healthcare-associated hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol, 20(46), 17265–17278.
Wilkins T, Akhtar M, Gititu E, Jalluri C & Ramirez J. (2015). Diagnosis and Management of Hepatitis C. Am Fam Physician,91(12), 835-42.
Zuckerman, A., Carver, A. & Chastain, C.A. (2018). Building a Hepatitis C Clinical Program: Strategies to Optimize Outcomes. Curr Treat Options Infect Dis, 10(4), 431-446. Signature Assignment Hepatitis C Essay