Theory and Research in Nursing Essay

) Choose an EBP topic and two scholarly peer-reviewed journal articles and summarize.
2) Compare the difference between theory, research, and practice in nursing.
3) Choose a theory that best correlates with the EBP practice change that you would like to make.
4) Compare and contrast the quantitative and qualitative research article that you choose for the EBP topic
5) What technology did you use to locate the articles? Databases? Search terms?
6) What are the philosophical, theoretical, and methodological perspectives in the research articles that were chosen?
7) What are the ethical and scientific integrity issues related to the research?
8) How did your nursing knowledge advance through the utilization of research?  Theory and Research in Nursing Essay

Theory and Research in Nursing

Hand Hygiene Program to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Infections (HAIs)

Summary of the Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Phan et al (2018) sought to determine the adherence to hand hygiene by healthcare providers after the implementation of an educational program in a gynecological and obstetric hospital. Adherence to hand hygiene has been demonstrated to lower the rate of HAIs. In Phan et al (2018), nurses were enrolled in a 4-hour educational program where they were trained about hand hygiene. The adherence of nurses to hand hygiene was then observed for 6 months after the education intervention. The findings of this study showed that the educational intervention to nurses about hand hygiene improved their adherence to hand hygiene. The hand hygiene improvements were sustained for more than six months. Educational interventions on hand hygiene are therefore effective in facilitating sustainable hand hygiene adherence for the healthcare providers (Phan et al., 2018). Hsand hygiene is the most effective means of preventing and reducing HAIs.

The study by Fox et al (2015) sought to investigate a hand hygiene practice that was developed to lower the rate of HAIs and improve the adherence of nurses to hand hygiene in the ICU. Patients who are critically ill are at an increased risk of HAIs and this increases their mortality and morbidity. Nurses are the key care providers to critically ill patients and thus adherence to hand hygiene by nurses plays a critical role in reducing and preventing HAIs among this patient population (Fox et al., 2015). The findings from this study indicated that the introduction of a hand hygiene protocol in the ICU led to improved adherence to hand hygiene among nurses and this reduced the rate of HAIs in the ICU. This, therefore, emphasizes the importance of implementing quality improvement programs aimed to prevent infections. Implementation of such programs improves the quality of care, patient safety, care outcomes, and more importantly reduces the morbidity and mortality rate.

Comparison of Theory, Research, and Practice in Nursing

Theory, research, and practice are the keystones of the nursing profession. Clinical practice creates knowledge and research questions for theory, whereas the research builds knowledge and guides nursing practice. The theory forms the basis of the research process because research theory is used as the model to guide the research study and provide a perspective during the research (Nilsen, 2015). The theory is also utilized in guiding the research process through the generation and testing of phenomena of interest. Theory in the nursing profession aims to enhance practice by positively impacting the quality of life and the health of patients. On the other hand, practice forms the basis to develop nursing theory while nursing theory should be corroborated in practice. According to Nilsen (2015), nursing theory and practice are two separate and distinct nursing activities. Nursing theories have constructs and concepts that should be elaborated before their application to practice. Theory and research guided theory ensure the provision of efficient, effective, and holistic patient care.  Theory and Research in Nursing Essay

Environmental Theory

The environmental theory by Florence Nightingale will be used to guide the implementation of hand hygiene program in the healthcare organization. The environmental theory addresses environmental factors that impact the health of patients. According to Florence Nightingale, the environment plays an important role in ensuring the health and wellbeing of people, as well as in promoting recovery (Sher & Akhtar, 2018). It is possible to change the for patients. Nurses can change the patient’s health and needs according to their needs. An environment that promotes wellbeing and health enables patients to retain energy to use in self-recovery. To implement changes, Nightingale utilized a holistic approach to patient care, integrating components of nature to restore health (Sher & Akhtar, 2018). Nightingale’s environmental theory included ten components that were believed to promote a healing environment for patients. For example, proper ventilation was shown to provide good quality of air for patients, and this promoted recovery. Nightingale also discovered that reducing noise levels allowed patients to have enough rest and promoted recovery. Moreover, according to Nightingale, the body releases waste through lungs and skin pores, which enter bedsheets; thus, changing the bed sheets daily and frequent bathing eradicated microorganisms (Sher & Akhtar, 2018). Practicing strict hand hygiene was done to prevent the transmission and spread of microorganisms from one individual to another. Nightingale managed to maintain health by ensuring nurses cleaning the hospital daily. According to Nightingale, maintaining a clean environment maintained and promoted health. Therefore, good hand hygiene can improve the health outcomes for patients by reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections (Sher & Akhtar, 2018). This, therefore, supports the use of environmental theory by Florence Nightingale to guide the implementation of the hand hygiene project to reduce and prevent HAIs.


Comparing and Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative Research Articles

Research methods include the procedures used in the research process and include both qualitative and quantitative research methods. A qualitative research method is a systematic technique that utilized a descriptive/narrative approach to collect, analyze, interpret, and present data. A qualitative research method is utilized to gain an understanding of and underlying perception, opinion, and idea (Farghaly, 2018). As quantitative research method is a structured research technique that utilizes a statistical approach to collect, analyze, interpret, and present data. Quantitative research utilizes deductive reasoning to work on a hypothesis. Quantitative research utilizes experiments to elaborate on the hypothesis by demonstrating the link between independent and dependent variables (Aspers & Corte, 2019). Qualitative research utilizes inductive reasoning to generate a theory. Qualitative research occurs in a controlled setting and this guarantees the accuracy of the findings while qualitative research occurs within the natural setting of the study participants (Aspers & Corte, 2019). This allows the researcher to understand the factors that could be influencing the research. Research carried out within a natural setting is very vital in nursing practice as it enhances the understanding regarding the experiences of the study subjects and allows the nurse to reflect regarding the experiences and implement the required strategies to improve the process of care.

Regarding sample selection, in quantitative research, the sample size is large and it is selected using probability sampling methods. The probability sampling method and use of large sample sizes in quantitative research allow the generalization of the findings to the population and application of the findings to practice because of the increased reliability and validity of the findings. On the other hand, qualitative research utilizes non-probability sampling methods like purposive, convenience, quota, and snowballing sampling methods (Farghaly, 2018). During data collection, quantitative research utilizes experimental and correlative approaches; in nursing practice, this enables nurses to understand the relationship between the dependent and independent variables which supports the significance of evidence-based practice for the nursing profession. In qualitative research techniques, a phenomenological, ethnographical, and case study approaches are adopted and this is also relevant in the nursing practice because it enables nurses to get to know the distinct experiences and needs of the patients. Finally, in quantitative studies, the data is analyzed statistically and tables, graphs, charts, plot boxes, and figures are used to present the data. On the other hand, qualitative research data is analyzed by categorizing the data into groups (coding) and resented using descriptive themes and subthemes (Aspers & Corte, 2019).

Location of the Journal Articles

An online comprehensive search of nursing and medical databases was done and the databases searched included CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, and Wiley library. The search strategy targeted the peer-reviewed journal articles published after 2015 and those published using the English language. The search terms used during the search were hand hygiene, infections, hospital-acquired infections, education, nurses, and adherence.

The Philosophical, Theoretical, and Methodological Perspectives

In Fox et al (2018), a pre-experimental study design was utilized in comparing the rate of HAIs after the application of the hand hygiene education practice. In this study, there was a control group was not used in the methodology. However, the article does not mention the theoretical model that underlay the framework of this study. In Phan et al (2018), a quasi-experimental study was used as the study methodology. The theory of planned behavior was used to guide this study where regarding the planned behavior of practicing the appropriate hand hygiene techniques.    Theory and Research in Nursing Essay

Ethical and Scientific Integrity Issues

Ethics and integrity aspects are very important in research. First, before starting any research, it is necessary to obtain approval from the appropriate ethical research body, especially when human participants are involved (Yip et al., 2016). Moreover, informed consent should be obtained from all research subjects while considering the four key ethical principles namely autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice (Huh, 2018). This ensures that the study participants are treated with fairness and they are involved in all decision-making steps during research. the research participants should be allowed to make their won choice and the collected data is supposed to be protected with the utmost confidentiality. The data should be locked in a safe place and all electronic devices used to store the data should have passwords that are only accessible by authorized parties (Huh, 2018).

Advancing Nursing Knowledge through Research

By using the research, I gained information literacy by understanding the synthesized information and transforming the information into knowledge that can be used practically. Nurses require knowledge to apply in practice and also to stay updated and current in the nursing field (Curtis et al., 2017). From this research, I learned how to interpret data, compare various studies, process data, and information, critique research findings, and also think critically. Information literacy has been shown to empower nurses to utilize research in their nursing practice so that they make meaningful clinical decisions.

Additionally, through research, nurses can identify effective best practices and thus improve patient care and health outcomes. Similarly, through this research, I was able to determine how effective hand hygiene prevents HAIs, improves care, and patient outcomes. This research polished my skills to retrieve, read, analyze, critique, and apply research in nursing practice (Curtis et al., 2017). the research findings from research studies also correct misunderstandings about patient care and allow the implementation of new and more effective treatment protocols to improve patient care and health outcomes. Moreover, research assists nurses to adapt to changes occurring within the healthcare setting, patient populations, and well as regulations. Research discoveries lead to changes in nursing practice. This is because nurses are required to base their practice on the research findings. Through research, the best practices are identified leading to evidence-based practice among nurses (Curtis et al., 2017). Translation of the best research evidence also facilitates the provision of more clear and sustainable healthcare services, a key component of nursing practice. translating research to practice also facilitates behavioral, cultural, and practice changes; this decreases the research-practice gap. By translating evidence into practice, it is possible to recalibrate care responses and patient safety to optimize patient outcomes (Curtis et al., 2017).


Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Sociology, 42(2), 139–160.

Curtis, K., Fry, M., Shaban, R. Z., & Considine, J. (2017). Translating research findings to clinical nursing practice. Journal of clinical nursing, 26(5-6), 862–872.

Farghaly A. (2018). Comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative research approaches in education: the peculiar situation of medical education. Education in Medicine Journal, 10(1),3–11.

Fox, C., Wavra, T., Drake, D. A., Mulligan, D., Bennett, Y. P., Nelson, C., … & Bader, M. K. (2015). Use of a patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses’ hand washing. American Journal of Critical Care, 24(3), 216-224.

Huh S. (2018). Strengthened research ethics, including patient anonymity and informed consent, in MEDLINE and PubMed Central journals. Archives of craniofacial surgery, 19(4), 241–242.

Nilsen P. (2015). Making sense of implementation theories, models, and frameworks. Implementation science: IS10, 53.

Phan, H. T., Tran, H., Tran, H., Dinh, A., Ngo, H. T., Theorell-Haglow, J., & Gordon, C. J. (2018). An educational intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in Vietnam. BMC infectious diseases, 18(1), 116.

Sher, A. N. A., & Akhtar, A. (2018). Clinical Application of Nightingale’s Theory. J Clin Res Bioeth9(329), 2.

Yip, C., Han, N. R., & Sng, B. L. (2016). Legal and ethical issues in research. Indian journal of anesthesia, 60(9), 684–688.

Theory and Research in Nursing Essay

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