Women Health Smoking Discussion Essay Paper

After identifying potential health risks for pregnant patients, providers often recommend behavior changes in lifestyle choices such as drug use, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, and environmental exposures. Even with provider recommendations and patient education programs, some patients still struggle to adhere to recommended lifestyle changes during pregnancy, posing health risks for both the mother and child. In your role as the provider, you must be able to recognize signs of nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes because not all patients will be forthcoming with the struggles they may be experiencing. Management plans are only successful if patients’ individual needs are recognized and met, so provider-patient collaboration is essential for mitigating nonadherence issues. For this Discussion, consider implications of nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes and potential management strategies for pregnant patients.  Women Health Smoking Discussion Essay Paper
To prepare:
Review the “During Pregnancy” article in this week’s Learning Resources.
Think about the health promotion topic that you selected for the Week 8 Discussion (i.e., smoking, drinking, taking drugs, eating habits, and caring for pets).
With the topic you selected in mind, consider early signs and symptoms that might indicate a patient’s nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes during pregnancy. Think about the impact of nonadherence on the fetus and the patient.
Reflect on treatment and management strategies for patients presenting with signs and symptoms of nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes.
By Day 3
Post an explanation of signs and symptoms that might indicate a pregnant patient’s nonadherence to recommended lifestyle changes related to the topic you selected. Explain the impact of nonadherence to these lifestyle recommendations on the fetus and the patient. Then, explain treatment and management strategies for patients presenting with signs and symptoms resulting from their nonadherence.

Week 9 Discussion Women’s Health: Smoking

Signs and Symptoms Indicating Nonadherence to the Lifestyle Change

Some of the signs that may indicate that a pregnant woman is still smoking include the smell of smoke. According to Chauhan et al (2013) smokers normally have a characteristic smell in their breath, clothes, and hand, and hence the small can detect a pregnant woman who is still smoking. Another sign of smoking includes stained fingers and nails where the person may have yellow stains on their fingers and teeth because of exposure to smoke and tar. The gravelly voice is also associated with smoking so if the pregnant woman presents with a gravelly voice it may be a tale sign that she is still smoking. Finally, the visible cigarette packet or a lighter in the pocket or purse of the woman may be indicating that she still smokes (Chauhan et al., 2013).  Women Health Smoking Discussion Essay Paper

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Impact of Nonadherence on the Fetus and the Patient

A woman who smokes during her pregnancy has a high likelihood of experiencing numerous negative pregnancy outcomes such as ectopic pregnancy, fetal death in the uterus, miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight baby, premature labor, premature rupture of the membranes, and problems with placenta such as placenta abruption and previa development (Smedberg et al., 2014). Moreover, the patient may also end up experiencing breath shortness; chest pain due to inadequate flow of blood to the heart, persistent cough; blood in the cough; frequent upper respiratory infections; blood in the urine; persistent voice hoarseness; and abdominal pain.  There is a direct connection between smoking and maternal morbidity development (Smedberg et al., 2014).

Regarding the fetus, every time a pregnant woman smokes, this cuts down oxygen to the fetus and exposes the fetus to many bad chemicals, including carcinogenic chemicals. Some of the numerous harmful effects of smoking on the fetus consists of decreased oxygen supply to the fetus because of nicotine and carbon monoxide; growth and development retardation; harmful effects on the lungs and brains of the fetus; elevated risk of the fetus developing cleft palate and cleft lip; reduced fetal movements; as well as impaired development and functioning of the placenta development (Smedberg et al., 2014). Worse still, there is a risk of fetal death and stillbirth when a woman smokes during pregnancy. Nicotine lowers the flow of blood to the placenta and also leads to the availability of carbon monoxide in the placenta and hence reduces the availability of oxygen to the fetus. This leads to reducing oxygen and nutrient delivery to the fetus and hence limits the development and growth of the fetus. Evidence also indicates that the toxic effects of nicotine lead to damage to the fetal brain and impairment of lung development (Smedberg et al., 2014).

Moreover, smoking during pregnancy can significantly impair the health of the child in the future. The negative health impacts may encompass, weak lungs; increased risk of the child developing asthma; low birth weight which is associated with high blood pressure and heart disease; higher risk of childhood obesity; and birth defects such as hernia, limb reduction defects, club foot, craniosyntosis; and gastroschisis. Health issues are evident in infants and children of mothers who were smoking while pregnant. Nicotine can cross to the placenta and it is high in concentrations within the fetal tissues (Smedberg et al., 2014).  Women Health Smoking Discussion Essay Paper

Treatment and Management Strategies for Patient Presenting with Symptoms of Nonadherence to the Recommended Lifestyle Changes

Behavioral counseling has been evidenced to be an effective strategy in supporting smoking cessation during pregnancy. Counseling strategies should include providing to the patient about the health effects of smoking, problem-solving, in addition to facilitating social support. The family members such as a supportive partner can improve the ability of a pregnant woman smoker to successfully stop smoking. Motivational interviewing is also an effective strategy that can benefit pregnant women to stop smoking. The women should be educated on the adverse impacts of smoking on their health and the fetus as well, in order to serve as a motivator to quit smoking (Hayes et al., 2013). Pregnant women are highly motivated to stop smoking and hence healthcare providers should tap into this motivation to assist them in stopping smoking and achieving long-term healthy lifestyle changes (Fergie et al., 2019).

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT): NRT is recommended for pregnant women who are not able to stop smoking using other interventions or unassisted. Evidence indicates that use of NRT during pregnancy does not have more harmful effects to the fetus when compared to smoking, NRT can be used to improve cessation in pregnant women who are unable to stop smoking (Bar-Zeev et al., 2018).

References

Bar-Zeev Y, Lim L, Bonevski B, Gruppetta M & Gould G. (2018). Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Med J Aust, 15;208(1), 46-51.

Chauhan V, Sharma R & Thakur S. (2013). Tell-tale signs of a chronic smoker. Lung India, 30(1): 79–81. doi: 10.4103/0970-2113.106125

Fergie L, Tim C, Ussher M, Cooper S & Campbell K. (2019). Pregnant Smokers’ Experiences and Opinions of Techniques Aimed to Address Barriers and Facilitators to Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(15), 2772.

Hayes CB, Collins C, O’Carroll H, Wyse E, Gunning M, Geary M & Kelleher CC. (2013). Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women. Nicotine Tob Res, 15(5):969-77.

Smedberg, J., Lupattelli, A., Mårdby, A. et al. (2014). Characteristics of women who continue smoking during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study of pregnant women and new mothers in 15 European countries. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 14(213).    Women Health Smoking Discussion Essay Paper

 

 

 

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